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中译英连接词语的联用
作者:管理员    发布于:2012-07-01 20:58:12    文字:【】【】【

中译英连接词语的联用

 

有时汉语复句前半部特别长,英译时若仅用单个连接词,其连接功能可伸展到何处不一定很清楚,如改用两个前后关联的词语则可增加句子内部的衔接性与清晰度。

 

1.虽然船公司意欲上调运价,但是运价指数上周又呈急幅下跌。(《航运交易公报》)

Although shipping companies intend to raise the freight rates the freight index dropped sharply last week.

评析:但以上一句汉语可拉长如下: 屋盤为了稳定运价、改进收益,中外船公司最近在上海召开会议, 意欲上调上海至日本航线运价;同时,在大连/日本集装箱班轮航线上派船的7家中国船公司810日起引入每20英尺标准集装箱380美元的最低运价,但是日本航线运价指数上周又呈急幅下跌,跌幅达 40%,比今年最低谷812.75点仅高出14点。(《航运交易周刊》)

在此,如依然使用Although这一简短的连接词,显然拖不动随后这么长的句子。在下面这句译文中,读者看不清Although的让步功 能可延续到何处为止:

Although Chinese and foreign shipping companies recently held a meeting in Shanghai intending to stabilize the freight rates on the shipping line to Japan, and, moreover, the seven Chinese carriers operating on the container shipping line from Dalian to Japan have set the minimum rate of US $ 380 per 20 container box to be implemented from August 10th onthe freight index for the line to Japan dropped sharply last week, registering a slump of 40 percent, only 14 points higher than this years record low of 812.75 points.(《航运交易周刊》)

这时如果仅仅拉长连接词语的长度(例如,可拉长为In spite of the fact that...),全句结构依然不甚清楚。但如改用关联词语,则可增强长句内部或两句句子之间的粘合性,增强前后的衔接性。以下译文使用It is true thatNevertheless这样的大功率关联连接词语,译文便显得清楚无误了。

It is true that Chinese and foreign shipping companies recently held a meeting in Shanghai intending to stabilize the freight rates on the shipping line to Japan, and, moreoverthe seven Chinese carriers operating on the container shipping line from Dalian to Japan have set the minimum rate of US $ 380 per 20 container box to be implemented from August 10th on. Nevertheless, the freight index for the line to Japan dropped sharply last weekregistering a slump of 40 percentonly 14 points higher than this years record low of 812.75 points.

 

2.只要坚持公有制为主体,不会影响我国的社会主义性质。

Only if/ So long as we keep public ownership in the dominant positionthe socialist nature of our country will not be affected.

现将以上汉语句子扩展为以下长句:

只要坚持公有制为主体、国家控制国民经济命脉,国有经济的控制力和竞争力得到增强,在这个前提下,国有经济比重减少一些,不会影响我国的社会主义性质。(《十五大》)

这时如继续使用Only ifSo long as,其拖动力不足,读者不易看清有关该条件的文字到何处终止。

Only if we keep public ownership in the dominant position, the State controls the life-blood of the national economy and the State- owned sector has stronger control capability and is more competitive, even if the State-owned sector accounts for a smaller proportion of the economythis will not affect the socialist nature of our country.

现改用长度更长,并且具有延续性的衔接词语On the premise that… that… and that... ,使前后部分衔接起来,译文就变得更为清晰:

On the premise that we keep public ownership in the dominant positionthat the State controls the life-blood of the national economy and that the State-owned sector has stronger control capability and is more competitive, even if the State-owned sector accounts for a smaller proportion of the economy, this will not affect the socialist nature of our country.(《中国日报》)

 

3.既要冲破旧的思想禁锢,又要按客观规律办事。(《现代汉英翻译技巧》第171页)

We should both break away from old concepts and act in accordance with objective laws.

但以上汉语句子可被拉长如下:

既要冲破旧的思想禁锢,尊重群众的首创精神,大胆试验创新,在实践中积极探索前进,又羞按客观规律办事,审时度势,讲求实效。(《人大》)

如仍然使用短的连接词both... and... ,似乎拖不动这么长的句子,句内关系不甚清楚,both后出现三个and,不容易一下看出与哪个 and相关联:

We should both break away from old conceptsrespect the peoples pioneering spiritmake bold experiments and actively explore the way forward, and act in accordance with objective lawscorrectly appraise situations and strive for practical results.

这时可改用更长、更显著的关联词On the one hand… on the other… ,或At the same time。为了表述清楚,即使断句也是可取的。请看以下两种译文:

译文 1 On the one handwe should break away from old conceptsrespect the peoples pioneering spiritmake bold experiments and actively explore the way forward on the other handwe should act in accordance with objective laws, correctly appraise situations and strive for practical results.

译文 2 We should break away from old conceptsrespect the peoples pioneering spirit, make bold experiments and actively explore the way forward At the same timewe should act in accordance with objective lawscorrectly appraise situations and strive for practical results.(《中国日报》)

 

4.进一步在全党全社会形成尊重知识、尊重人才,促进优秀人才脱颖而出的良好风气。(80周年)

译文 1 Further efforts should be made to create in the whole Party and society a favorable atmosphere where there is respect for knowledge and talent and outstanding people can easily come to the fore.

译文 2: Further efforts should be made to create in the whole Party and society a favorable atmosphere where there is respect for knowledge and talentand where outstanding people can easily  come to the fore.

评析:译文1用一个where来拖动后面的there is respect for knowledge and talent and outstanding people can easily come to the fore,显得有点力不从心。译文2通过两个where连用,就增强了拖动力。

 

如果没有适当的大型关联词,不妨删除短小的关联词,将长句切断。

 

5.事实表明,不触动封建根基的自强运动和改良主义,旧式的农民战争,资产阶级革命派领导的民主革命,以及照搬西方资本主义的其他种种方案,都不能完成救亡图存的民族使命和反帝反封建的历史任务。(80周年)

译文 1 Facts show that neither the self-improvement movem¬ents and reformism, the old peasant wars and the democratic revolution led by the revolutionaries of the bourgeoisie that did not touch the foundation of feudalism nor other solutions that ape western capitalism can accomplish the national mission of saving the nation from subjugation and ensuring its survival and the historical tasks against imperialism and feudalism.(《北京周报》)

译文 2 Facts show that the self-improvement movements and reformism, the old peasant wars and the democratic revolution led by the revolutionaries of the bourgeoisie that did not touch the foundation of feudalism or other solutions that copied western capitalism could not accomplish the mission of saving the nation from subjugation and ensuring its survival and the historical tasks against imperialism and feudalism.(《单行本》)

评析:《北京周报》译文中连接词neithernor之间隔了 28个单词,读者读到neither就会带着一种期待心理往下找其对应词nor,二 者之间距离太远,用这两个小词来衔接,十分勉强,只会加重读者的阅读负担。

《单行本》译文用连接词or将前后两部分松散的连接起来,相当于断句,对读者的心理压力较小。连成一有机整体,较好地解决了《北京周报》译文的问题。

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