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标点符号衔接在翻译中的应用
作者:管理员    发布于:2012-06-30 23:00:27    文字:【】【】【

标点符号衔接在翻译中的应用

 

标点符号作为文字语言不可缺少的辅助,在语篇中的衔接作用是十分明显的。吕叔湘先生说得好每一个标点符号都有一个独特的作用。”(引自高风江,1996:25)“分号将前后两并列的分句连接起来, 体现了两分句的并列或对比的逻辑关系;冒号标示前后文提示性逻辑 关系;括号标明符号内外注释性逻辑关系;破折号标明符号前后之间解释说明、补充说明或语义突然转变的逻辑关系。”(苏培成,1994)

 

1.搞科技,越高越好,越新越好。越高越新,我们也就越高兴。不只我们高兴,人民高兴,国家高兴。(《邓选》)

译文 1 We will develop science and technology, and the higher and newer the technologies, the better. And we will be all the more delightedas will people and the nation. (《北京周报》)

译文 2 We should develop science and technology, and the higher and newer the technologies arethe better, and the more delighted we shall beand not just webut the entire people and the state . (外文出版社)

评析: “不只我们高兴,人民髙兴,国家高兴”补充说明前面一句 的“我们也就越高兴”。由于语义上有密切联系,不妨采用并句法将它们连接起来。译文1使用连接词as将前后句子连接在一起,是可行的;译文2改用破折号,联系更为紧密。

 

2.老年人有长处,但也有很大的弱点2老年人容易固执,因此老年人也要有点自觉性。(《邓选》)

译文 1 The elderly have both strong and weak points They tend to be stubborn, and therefore, they should be aware of their limitations.(《北京周报》)

译文 2 Old people have strengths but also great weaknesses they tend to be stubborn, for exampleand they should be aware of that.(外文出版社)

评析:以上松散的汉语短句群可被分为两个部分,后面一部分补充说明前面一部分的“弱点”。译文1采用并列形式,未能很好地体现这种语义上的联系。译文2则使用简单明了的破折号来表达出补充说明的关系。当然,也可改用冒号来达到相同的效果。

 

3.我们可利用的矛盾存在着,对我们有利的条件存在着,机遇 存在着A问题是要善于把握。(《邓选》)

译文 1 Contradictions we can make use of exist. Conditions that are beneficial to us exist: Opportunities exist The point is that we should be adept at seizing them.(《北京周报》)

译文 2 There are contradictions that we can use, conditions that are favourable to us, opportunities that we can take advantage ofthe problem is to seize them at the right moment.(外文出版社)

评析:原文由四句松散分句组成。前三句讲述了存在着的三种有利因素,然后点出问题的要害。译文1按中文结构译成四句,太呆板,不合英语行文习惯,不易体现出四句话之间的语义联系。译文2 使用破折号,不但使英译文显得紧凑,而且有助于把读者的注意力集中在问题的核心部分。

 

4.在美国,绝大多数中国本科生所学的专业是自然科学、工程或是经济,很多人在上高中时都是学习上的超级尖子,是国际奥林匹克竞赛的金牌获得者或是在全国竞赛中的获奖者。(《笔译实务》第 189 页)

The overwhelming majority of Chinese undergraduates in the US major in science, engineering or economics. Many were academic superstars in their high schools —gold medalists in international academic Olympiads or prize winners in national academic contests.

评析:英语中使用破折号的频率似乎高于汉语,因此在汉译英时可有意识地使用一些破折号来连接一些并列结构,增强衔接性。

 

5.杭州不仅以自然美景闻名于世,而且有着传统文化的魅力。 不仅有历代文人墨客的题咏,而且有美味佳肴和漂亮的工艺品。(《高 级翻译》第177页)

The city not only is known for its natural scenery, but also has the charm of traditional culture it boasts not only poems and inscriptions left by ancient scholars, but delicious dishes and pretty

handicrafts as well.

评析:这句中文虽然已用句号断开,其实与后面的两句(不仅有历代文人墨客的题咏,而且有……)在语义上紧密相连。因此,英译文没有使用句号,改用冒号,以增强上下文之间的衔接性。

 

6.中国与其他国家所不同的是她史无前例的发展步伐。世界上还有哪个地方一幢幢高楼似乎在一夜间就冒了出来?(高风江, 1996:1)

What makes China different from the rest of the world is its unprecedented pace of development —where else in the world do new highrises seem to sprout up overnight?

评析:破折号和冒号汉语不常使用,但若在英语译文中使用得当,可以增加译文的衔接度。本句没有用句号,而是使用破折号将前 后两句有机地衔接了起来。

 

7.这五年,首先是农村改革带来许多新的变化!农作物大幅度增产,农民收入大幅度增加,乡镇企业异军突起。(《邓选》)

译文 1: During those five yearsrural reform brought about many changes, which were characterized by substantial increase in crop production and farmers income and the rise of rural enterprises as a new force.(《北京周报》)

译文 2: During those five years rural reform brought about many changes grain output increased substantially, as did the peasantsincomeand rural enterprises emerged as a new force.(外文出版社)

评析:原文含有四个形式松散的分句,但从语义上看,后面三句补充说明第一句中的“许多新的变化”。译文1which were characterized by的形式将后面三句与前面第一句衔接起来。译文2 则使用冒号加以衔接,更显精练。

 

8.北京的水资源巳极为紧张,曾作为北京主要水源的密云水库水位巳经很低,面临危机,水质也有所下降,每年城市的地下水位也在明显降低。(《笔译实务》第221页)

Beijings water supply is already under grave stress the Miyun Reservoirsource of much of the citys water in the pastis critically low and the quality of its water is declining. The citys underground water table also drops markedly every year.

评析:“北京的水资源已极为紧张”与后面的“曾作为北京主要水源的密云水库水位巳经很低,面临危机”之间有紧密的语义联系,英译文使用冒号可增强前后衔接。

本文由南宁言成翻译公司http://www.gxycfy.com/news/html/?432.html整理发布。

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