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汉英互译技巧:实词的使用
作者:管理员    发布于:2012-06-29 20:27:02    文字:【】【】【

汉英互译技巧:实词的使用 

 

1.从深圳的情况看,公有制是主体,外商投资只占四分之一,就是外资部分,我们还可以从税收、劳务等方面得到益处嘛!(《邓选》)

译文 1: In the case of Shenzhenthe public ownership sector constitutes the mainstay, with foreign investment accounting for only one-fourth share. Even in the sector of foreign capitalwe can benefit from taxation and labor services.(《北京周报》)

译文 2 In the case of Shenzhen, the publicly owned sector is the mainstay of the economy, while the foreign-invested sector accounts for only a quarter. And even in that sectorwe benefit from taxes and employment opportunities.(外文出版社)

评析:《北京周报》译文采用了同义词foreign capital来与前面的 foreign investment相呼应,但在这么短的距离内改用同义词似乎不 必要。外文出版社译文将the foreign-invested sector简化成that sector,衔接关系更简明。如想将that sector进一步简化成代词it that,或this,便指代不清了。

 

2.在合同有效期内,改进技术所有权,包括申请专利的权力,属于改进方。(《合同管理条例施行细则》)

译文 1: Within the term of validity of the contractthe ownership of the improved technology including the right to apply for patents belongs to the party that has made the improvements. (1992年译本)

译文 2 During the duration of a contractproprietary rights to improvements made to the technology, including applications for patent rights, shall belong to the party which made the improvements .(澳大利亚译本)

评析:译文1使用improvements来与前面的同根词improved衔接。但考虑到法律文件讲究清晰度,improvementsimproved 间的距离比较远,相隔十几个单词,译文2转而使用两个相同词 (improvements)来进行衔接,能进一步减轻读者的阅读心理负担。

 

3.没有对外技术引进经营权的公司、企业、团体或者个人引进技术时,应当委托具有对外技术引进经营权的公司、企业对外签订技术引进合同,并出具委托书。(《合同管理条例施行细则》)

译文 1: To import technology, companiesenterprises, institutions or individuals with no right to do technology import business with abroad shallwith a letter of commissionentrust those companies and enterprises with such rights to conclude technology import contracts. (1992 年译本)

译文 2: When a company, enterprisegroup or individual which is not authorized to engage in import of technology from abroad imports technologyit shall commission a company or enterprise which is authorized to import technology from abroad to sign a technology import contract with the foreign party and shall provide a power of attorney.(澳大利亚译本)

评析:译文1使用such rights来指代照应前面的technology import,简单明了,符合日常英语的习惯。译文2似乎舍简求繁,在使用过(is not authorized to engage in) import of technology 后,又重复使用了(is authorized to) import technology,看上去虽然笨拙,但事实上法律文件有时喜欢重复,以求百分之百的准确无误。以上两种办法在法律文件汉译英中都是可以使用的。但是,如果将译文2is authorized to import technology from abroad 省略为 is authorized to do so,那就显得过于口语化,不合法律文件的严肃口吻。

 

4.自上周一名为“克隆援助”的机构宣称巳经成功克隆出第一个人类后,1230日该机构执行总裁宣布,在上周一克隆婴儿出生后,母亲和克隆婴儿巳经回到自己的家中。(《笔译实务》第257页)

After a company called Clonaid said it had produced the first human cloneits chief executive said on December 30th that the mother and her cloned child (the mother and baby) were home following the childs birth last week.

评析:如何翻译“克隆婴儿”?如简单译成it,指代不清。如译成 her cloned child十分清楚,但用词略嫌多。其实仅用baby这一个实词即可。

 

5.如果你是健康的,身体就很容易供出一次献血的量。献血不会使你虚弱,我们的身体很快就会补充上献掉的血液。(《笔译实务》第173页)

If you are healthy, your body can easily supply the amount collected at a donation. Giving blood does not make you weak, and our bodies promptly reproduce the blood.

评析:如将“献掉的血液”简单译成it,勉强可以,但鉴于前面有较多的单数名词,如body, donation, giving blood, blood等,读者须花费一些工夫才能看清it指代blood。如译成the (amount of) blood you have given,太罗嗦。其实译成简单的实词the blood,在上下文中意思仍然很清楚。


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