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汉英互译中如何变换用词解析
作者:管理员    发布于:2012-06-13 08:39:22    文字:【】【】【

汉英互译中如何变换用词解析

 

重复是汉语的一大特点,同一词汇或词组可以在文中反复出现, 以求准确或有力。这和汉语是意合性语言有关系。汉语几个相关句子的组织,不是靠连词等手段,而主要靠句子内在的意思来连接。这样,缺少了连词的帮助,依靠词语的简单重复来增加句子的凝聚力便是很自然的了。因为就听者或读者来说,词语的重复要比使用代词、同义词等更能使句子意思明显易懂。而英语是形合性语言,它有连词等语言形态手段保证句子意思的连贯,这样它就可以无所顾忌地追求词语的变化。用不同的词汇来表达同一意义,以求达到活跃文风的效果。

汉语的用词重复还和其语音文字特点有密切关系。从美学的角度出发,为了读起来顺口,听上去悦耳,文章往往追求音节的整齐划一和匀称,这样就出现了词语的重复。而英语的美学观则有所不同。 FowerThe King’s English 一书中指出:重复词要么去掉,要么有所变化。因为重复出现某个词多少有点反常。只要反常就要去掉。 ( the words repeated would ordinarily be either varied or left out the repetition, that is to say, is more or less abnormal, whatever is abnormal may be objectionable in a single instance, and is likely to become so if it occurs frequently. )避免词语重复的办法之一就是追求词语的变化。

鉴于汉英两种语言在这方面的差异,译者应采取相应的措施。单其昌(1990:178)指出英译文中不要总是用同一个词汇或短语,如果用得太多,会使读者感到厌烦,因此用词要多样化”。请看下面译例。被重复的汉语词语包括动词、名词、形容词等。

 

1.我国同广大发展中国家的友好关系继续加强,与周边国家的睦邻友好合作关系全面发屋。去年,我国同俄罗斯和中亚四国共同宣布建立“上海合作组织”;在第五次中国一东盟领导人会议上,我国 与东盟一致同意今后10年内逐步建立中国一东盟自由贸易区。我国同朝鲜、韩国和南亚各国的关系稳步发屋。我国同非洲、拉美国家友 好合作取得新的发屋,与阿拉伯各国和其他伊斯兰国家的友好关系进一步发展。(《笔译实务》第140页)

China and other developing countries have strengthened their friendly relations- The good-neighborly friendship and cooperation between China and its surrounding countries have enjoyed all-round development (have developed in a comprehensive way/have multiplied). Last year, China, Russia and four Central Asian countries jointly announced the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, At the Fifth China-ASEAN Summit the two sides agreed to gradually establish a China-ASEAN free trade zone in the next ten years. The connections between China and DPRK, ROK and South Asian countries have developed steadily (have been maturing). China's friendly relations and cooperation with African and Latin American countries have made new development (fresh progress)and China’s friendly relations with the Arab and other Islamic countries have been further improved (have improved/have also warmed)>

评析:汉语经得起重复。“发展”这个词组在现代汉语中出现的频率极高,但读上去朗朗上口。没有经验的中国英语学习者往往将它一律译成develop/development,至多再译成progress,这会使英译文显得十分乏味,因为英语讲究变换用词。在以上这一小段中文中, (关系)发展”一词出现了四次,试看译者如何分别进行灵活处理:

(1)…have enjoyed all-round development (have developed in a comprehensive way/have multiplied).

(2)…developed steadily (have been maturing).

(3)…have made new development (fresh progress). 还可以将 全句改译成 Chinas friendly relations and cooperation with… have reached new degrees of friendship.

…have been further improved (have also improved/have warmed as well.)

细心的读者还可在以上翻译中发现,常用词“关系”可译成relations/ties/bonds/links/connections 等不同的近义词。

 

2.中美合作有利于亚太地区的稳定,也有利于世界的和平与发展。中美合作,已经并将继续对亚太地区和国际局势的稳定发挥不可替代的积极作用。(《笔译实务》第138页)

China-US cooperation is conducive to stability in the Asia- Pacific region as well as peace and development in the world. The China-US partnership has played, and will continue to play, a positive role in safeguarding stability in the Asia-Pacific region and the world at large. This is a role that cannot be replaced.

评析:“合作”在原文中两次出现。在译文中要注意用词变换,可分别译成 cooperationpartnership 或者 collaboration 等。

 

3.……国防工业实行军民结合、平战结合。 (《人大》)

…combining production of wartime products with peacetime products and integrating military with civilian purposes.

评析:两个动词“结合”分别译为combiningintegrating,体现 了译文的灵活性。(当然也可采用“提取公因式”办法,把两个“结合”合译为一个英语单词:integrating wartime products with peacetime ones, and military purposes with civilian ones。以上两种办法都优于译成两个combining。)

 

4.世界要和平,人民要合作,国家要发展,社会要进步,是时代的潮流。

The world needs peace. The people want cooperation. Nations aspire for development. Society seeks progress.  This is the trend of our times.

评析:汉语原文中的四个“要”,在译文中是通过needwant aspire forseek四个同义词实现的。

 

        本文由南宁言成翻译公司www.gxycfy.com整理发布。

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