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Use of Computers in Civil Engineering
作者:管理员    发布于:2012-05-25 15:54:55    文字:【】【】【

Use of Computers in Civil Engineering

计算机在土木工程中的应用

Because interactive computing is a relatively new development, traditional use of computers has been on the basis of batch processing. As a result of the limitations of this mode of operation, the use of computers has been mainly restricted to large, complex problems which could not be reasonably treated by conventional manual methods. An obvious example is the finite element method which has been employed successfully in a wide range of civil engineering design applications. Even here, however, the trial-and-error nature of design has meant that computers have generally been employed only in the later stages of the calculations, often serving as a little more than a formal check on less rigorous calculations and a means of producing presentation calculations. This is not to belittle such use, but simply to demonstrate that it has been in terms of very large or complicated projects that computers have traditionally enjoyed greatest application; the more routine work of the designer has been little affected.

人机相互配合的计算方法是新近才发展起来的,传统的计算机哪个一直是建立在批处理基础之上的。由于这种操作方式的局限性,计算机的应用主要限于那些不能用传统的手工方式进行合理操作处理的大而复杂的问题。一个明显的例子就是有限元法被成功地应用到范围很广的土木工程设计方面。但是即使在这方面,由于设计需要反复试验这种性质,这就意味着计算机一班之上用在计算的较后阶段,而且往往只不过是作为不那么有效的计算的一种正是核算,只是产生显示计算的一种手段。这样说来并不是贬低计算机的用途,而只是表示,在传统意义上,计算机只是在大型或复杂的工程项目上得到了最广泛的应用,而对于设计师的比较常规的工作却影响甚微。

One exception to this is the use of automatic design programs, perhaps the most common being the plastic design of steel portal frames. In these the design is ‘optimised’generally using a simple criterion of minimum weight, and, having defined the problem, the computer is able to converge on the best solution. Nevertheless, computers have been implemented on the scale which might have been expected when one considers the amount of time spent on design calculations. This has of course been largely as a result of the unsuitability of batch processing, and the problems associated with slow turnaround. However, by using a computer interactively, we can now carry out a sequence of calculations, the computer doing the mundane arithmetic and the designer providing the control and making the decisions. As a sequence, a very much wider range of applications becomes suitable for computer-aided design and there seems little doubt that the engineer will be able to take increasing advantage of this valuable design tool in the future. As we have seen, the relatively limited use of computers described above can be attributed to the nature of traditional computing facilities — big, expensive, remote, operating in a batch processing mode, and resulting in a slow turnaround. Recent developments now provide almost instant access and immediate turnaround together with a fully interactive capability, and this makes it realistic to computerize even relatively simple design tasks.

应用自动设计程度是这种情况的一个例外。其中最常见的也许是钢盾门架的塑性设计。在这些程度中,设计被优化了,通常是使用最小重量的简单标准,而且一旦确定了问题之后,计算机就能集中到最佳解决方案上来。但是,当考虑到在设计计算上所花费的时间,人们就会认为计算机没有按人们所期望的程度来完成工作任务。这当然主要是由于批处理的不适应性以及计算时间太慢有关的问题造成的。但是现在通过人机配合使用计算机,我们能够进行一系列的计算,计算机进行一般的算术计算,而设计师则进行控制和作出决定。其结果是,计算机辅助设计得到比以前更为广泛的应用,而且看来毫无疑问,工程师将来能够从这种有价值的设计工具中获得越来越多的利益。我们知道,上述计算机的应用受到相对限制是由于传统计算机设施的性质造成的。这些设施体积大、费用高、距离远,按批处理模式操作因而运算时间长。新近的发展口译使我们几乎立即就能使用计算机,并可当即进行运算,而且具有充分相互配合的能力,这样就可以做到利用计算机来完成比较简单的设计工作。

原载南宁翻译公司——言成翻译网站www.gxycfy.com

 

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